Advanced Driver Assistance Systems
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) technology is rapidly advancing as vehicle manufacturers gear up for the path to implement fully autonomous vehicles. Recent vehicle safety technology developments with ADAS are moving the focus from mitigating the effects of a collision to avoiding the crashes altogether. With ADAS technology already present on some vehicles and new vehicle safety features on the horizon, the need to follow service specifications and procedures will be paramount to perform a complete and safe repair.
The U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is actively evaluating the safety benefits of ADAS and the future of autonomous vehicles. NHTSA has mandated all vehicles sold after May 1, 2018, in the United States be equipped with rear visibility devices (e.g., backup cameras and monitors). Additionally, NHTSA and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) announced “a historic commitment by 20 automakers representing more than 99 percent of the U.S. auto market to make automatic emergency braking a standard feature on virtually all new cars” by September 2022.
NHTSA recently published “Automated Driving Systems 2.0: A Vision for Safety” in which they stated, “Over the coming months and years, NHTSA, along with other Federal agencies, where relevant, will continue to take a leadership role in encouraging the safe introduction of automated vehicle technologies into the motor vehicle fleet and on public roadways in the areas of policy, research, safety standards, freight and commercial use, infrastructure, and mass transit.” The Automated Driving Systems publication is available on the NHTSA website at www.nhtsa.gov.
The following table shows the progression of automated driving systems to fully autonomous vehicles:
Levels to Automated Driving Systems
|Level 0||No vehicle autonomy
Full driver responsibility
|Level 1||Vehicle provides driver info/warnings
Driver has informed control
|Level 2||Vehicle integrates detection/response
Driver ready to take control
|Level 3||Vehicle fully autonomous
Driver takes control in emergency
|Level 4||Vehicle fully autonomous
Occupants do not need ability to drive
|Level 5||Vehicle fully autonomous in all roadway and environmental conditions
Full vehicle responsibility
In a recent interview with the Inter-Industry Conference of Auto Collision Repair (I-CAR), Jason Bartanen, Director of Industry Technical Relations, stated, “We’re starting to see an increase in the number of vehicles that will not only require aiming or calibration, but also an initiation or programming process that needs to be followed so that the modules recognize new cameras or sensors.” Additionally, he stated, “With the voluntary agreement by U.S. auto makers to make auto braking standard by 2022, it’s important for automotive professionals to begin investing in the tooling, staffing, and training required for these systems to ensure they’re prepared when ADAS equipped vehicles enter their repair facility.”
Vehicles equipped with ADAS can vary by make, model, and year. ADAS can be standard equipment or as part of an option package available on the vehicle. ADAS recalibration and system repair can also vary by vehicle manufacturer, make, model, and year. Some ADAS require specific equipment, tools, and training to reset the system properly. The development and implementation of these ADAS technologies emphasizes the importance of following manufacturer service specifications and trade standards to ensure a proper repair.
Some Automotive Repair Dealers (ARDs) are performing ADAS service internally, while others are subletting the service to outside vendors. In either case, ARDs are required to adhere to service specifications, accepted trade standards, and laws contained within the Automotive Repair Act and BAR regulations. Specifically, Title 16, California Code of Regulations section 3365(a) requires that:
Repair procedures including but not limited to the sectioning of components parts, shall be performed in accordance with OEM service specifications or nationally distributed and periodically updated service specifications that are generally accepted by the autobody repair industry.